• Data Economy

    Why Privacy Shield is safe from legal challenges

    The Commission is convinced that the Privacy Shield lives up to the requirements set out by the European Court of Justice, says Christian Wigand, EC spokesperson for Justice. The Digital Post: Despite the reassuring statements of the European Commission [read more]
    byThe Digital Post | 28/Nov/20165 min read
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    The Commission is convinced that the Privacy Shield lives up to the requirements set out by the European Court of Justice, says Christian Wigand, EC spokesperson for Justice.

    The Digital Post: Despite the reassuring statements of the European Commission, the new “Safe Harbour” does not seem out of danger. Is the Privacy Shield enough strong to resist any future attempt to challenge its legal legitimacy?

    Christian Wigand: As we have said from the beginning, the Commission is convinced that the Privacy Shield lives up to the requirements set out by the European Court of Justice, which have been the basis for the negotiations. We used the ECJ ruling as a “benchmark” in the final phase of the negotiations, let me explain how three key requirements have been addressed:

    – The European Court of Justice required limitations for access to personal data for national security purposes and the availability of independent oversight and redress mechanisms.

    The U.S. ruled out indiscriminate mass surveillance on the personal data transferred to the US under this arrangement and for the first time, has given written commitments in this respect to the EU. For complaints on possible access by national intelligence authorities, a new Ombudsperson will be set up, independent from the intelligence services.

    – The Court required a regular review of the adequacy decisions.

    There will be an annual joint review to regularly review the functioning of the arrangement, which will also include the issue of national security access.

    – The Court required that all individual complaints about the way U.S. companies process their personal data are investigated and resolved.

    There will be a number of ways to address complaints, starting with dispute resolution by the company and free of charge alternative dispute resolution solutions. Citizens can also go to the Data protection authorities who will work together with the Federal Trade Commission to ensure that complaints by EU citizens are investigated and resolved. If a case is not resolved by any of the other means, as a last resort there will be an arbitration mechanism. Redress possibility in the area of national security for EU citizens’ will be handled by an Ombudsman independent from the US intelligence services


    TDP: Three months ago French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve and his German counterpart, Thomas de Maizière, called on the EU to adopt a law that would require apps companies to make encrypted messages available to law enforcement.  What is the official position of the Commission on this particular issue? Is the Commission working on a proposal?

    CW: Encryption is widely recognised as an essential tool for security and trust in open networks. It can play a crucial role, together with other measures, to protect information, including personal data, hence reducing the impact of data breaches and security incidents. However, the use of encryption should not prevent competent authorities from safeguarding important public interests in accordance with the procedures, conditions and safeguards set forth by law.

    The current Data Protection Directive (which also applies to the so-called over-the-top service providers such as WhatsApp or Skype) allows Member States to restrict the scope of certain data protection rights where necessary and proportionate to, for instance, safeguard national security, and the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences.
    The new General Data Protection Regulation (which will apply as from 25 May 2018) maintains these restrictions.


    TDP: According to a survey published recently by Dell most firms are unprepared for the EU’s General Data Protection Regulations less than 18 months before it enters into force. Are you worried about that?

    CW: To make the new data protection rules work in practice is a priority for us and we work closely with all stakeholders on that. The European Commission has set out a number of measures to make sure that companies operating in the European Union as well as national regulators will be ready for the new rules. There is work ongoing on all levels, with data protection authorities, industry representatives, data protection experts from Member States and of course national governments. For example, there are monthly meetings with Member States authorities on implementation. At the same time we are setting up a network between the Commission and national authorities to exchange information on the implementation of the Regulation and to share good practices.


    Picture credits: U.S. Army
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  • Data Economy

    Why we can’t afford another legal blow to EU-US data flows

    If Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) suffer the same fate as Safe Harbour then transferring data to the US will in practice become almost impossible, further threatening to balkanize the Internet and to undermine international trade.   Eight mo [read more]
    byJohn Higgins | 31/May/20165 min read
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    If Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) suffer the same fate as Safe Harbour then transferring data to the US will in practice become almost impossible, further threatening to balkanize the Internet and to undermine international trade.


    Eight months ago the Financial Times warned in an editorial that a ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to invalidate Safe Harbour, a commonly used legal mechanism for transferring data to the US, threatened to balkanize the Internet and undermine international trade.

    That threat deepened sharply last week when Ireland’s top data protection authority, the Irish Data Protection Commission, announced it would refer another legal mechanism, Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) to the courts too.

    After Safe Harbour was invalidated companies that need to transfer data as part of their day-to-day activities scrambled to find other legal methods to allow them to continue. One such method is the Standard Contractual Clause.

    If SCCs suffer the same fate as Safe Harbour then transferring data to the US will in practice become almost impossible.

    But it’s not just transatlantic data flows that are being called into question. Companies use SCCs to transfer data all over the world.

    If Europe’s courts conclude that SCCs are no safer than Safe Harbour this could effectively cut Europe out of the emerging global data economy, and that would hurt companies from almost every corner of the economy – not just the tech sector.

    Global data flows are vital to international trade. Forcing companies to store their data within Europe will have serious implications for Europe’s economic prospects.

    As the European Data Protection Supervisor, Giovanni Buttarelli himself said last week, it is unreasonable to ask companies to reinvent their practises all the time.

    I would urge Europe’s data protection authorities to stop shifting the legal goal posts for international data transfers and to wait until Safe Harbour’s intended replacement, the Privacy Shield, has been given a chance to work.

    The Privacy Shield, with its Ombudsperson role, would address the key concerns about EU citizens’ potential exposure to unwarranted surveillance by US security agencies.

    Privacy activists have dismissed the Privacy Shield before it’s even been given a chance to work. Jumping to a negative conclusion when so much is at stake seems rather reckless.

    Right now we need more legal certainty, not less. Give Privacy Shield a chance. If necessary make fixes once it’s in place but don’t throw companies into a legal black hole by closing down all options for international data transfers.


    Picture credits: Devin Poolman
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  • Data Economy

    Did the ECJ really kill the Safe Harbor?

    An in-depth look at the legal scenarios arising from the EU landmark ruling that declared invalid the EU-US Safe Harbor agreement on the transfer of personal data.   On October 6, 2015, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) ruled in the “ [read more]
    byIgnasi Guardans | 09/Oct/20159 min read
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    An in-depth look at the legal scenarios arising from the EU landmark ruling that declared invalid the EU-US Safe Harbor agreement on the transfer of personal data.


    On October 6, 2015, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) ruled in the “Schrems” case that the U.S.-EU Safe Harbor framework on the transfer of personal data from Europe to the United States, was invalid.

    For the past 15 years, this Safe Harbor framework gave privileged status to U.S. companies, allowing for such entities to “self-certify” that they complied with privacy standards negotiated between the European Commission and the United States Department of Commerce under the Clinton Administration in 1999, and were viewed as “adequate” by the EU.

    Effective immediately, today’s ruling may force all of the 4,400 U.S. entities that currently rely on the Safe Harbor to access the data of their EU partners and subsidiaries, to seek alternate modes of data transfer or risk non-compliance with EU data protection requirements.


    Austrian privacy campaigner Maximilian Schrems originally formed his complaint before the Irish Data Protection Authority (“DPA”) against Facebook’s use of his data, and the transfer of data occurring between Facebook’s Ireland entity and its U.S. parent company.

    According to the complainant, and based on Edward Snowden’s revelations on mass surveillance, Facebook and other U.S. multinationals were, directly or indirectly, allowing U.S. national security agencies unrestricted access to EU citizens’ data.

    Such unrestricted access could be construed as being in violation of the fundamental rights granted under the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46 (the  “Data Directive”), currently under revision in the EU.

    After the Irish DPA declined to investigate such concerns on the basis that the Safe Harbor implemented between the U.S. and Irish entities was exclusively overseen by the European Commission, the complaint was elevated before Europe’s highest Court.


    The ECJ disagreed with the Irish DPA’s interpretation, by stating that the existing provision “does not prevent a supervisory authority of a Member State … from examining the claim of a person concerning the protection of his rights and freedoms in regard to the processing of personal data relating to him which has been transferred from a Member State to third country when that person contends that the law and practices in force in the third country do not ensure an adequate level of protection”.

    In essence, this means that each EU member state DPA has the authority to hear complaints about the level of protection for personal data that other countries offer, and potentially to second guess any determinations that the European Commission has made that those countries offer adequate protection.

    In addition, the Court noted that “legislation not providing for any possibility for an individual to pursue legal remedies in order to have access to personal data relating to him, or to obtain the rectification or erasure of such data, compromises the essence of the fundamental right to effective judicial protection, the existence of such a possibility being inherent in the existence of the rule of law”.

    Following the September 23 opinion of Yves Bot, the ECJ’s Advocate General for the case, which notably stated that “once personal data is transferred to the United States, the National Security Agency and other United States security agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation are able to access it in the course of a mass and indiscriminate surveillance and interception of such data”, the Court invalidated the EU Commission decision 2000/520/EC of 26 July 2000 on the adequacy of the Safe Harbor framework to EU privacy standards.


    The EC promptly reacted to the decision of the ECJ. In a press conference on the same day of the ruling, the First Vice-President of the EC, Frans Timmermans, and the Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality, Věra Jourová, explained how the EC is planning to tackle the issues raised by the Court.

    In particular, they clarified that the Commission has now three priorities, in light of the ECJ’s ruling: (i) guaranteeing that the data of EU citizens are protected when transferred across the Atlantic, (ii) ensuring that data flow continues, and (iii) ensuring the uniform response on alternative ways to transfer data across the EU.

    According to Commissioner Jourová, the data flow can continue under EU data protection rules which provide for other safeguard mechanisms for international transfers of personal data (e.g. standard data protection clauses in contracts between companies exchanging data across the Atlantic or corporate rules for transfers within a corporate group) and the derogations under which data can be transferred (i.e. performance of a contract, important public interest grounds, vital interest of the data subject, or consent of the individual).

    The EC is planning to provide clear guidance to national data protection authorities on how to deal with data transfer requests to the US, in light of the ruling, and will put relevant information and contact points on its website.

    The guidance should guarantee a uniform enforcement of the ruling and more legal certainty for citizens and businesses.

    The Chair of the European Parliament Civil Liberties Committee, Claude Moraes, has called for the immediate suspension of the Safe Harbor agreement, following the decision of the ECJ, and for its replacement by the Commission with a new framework for transfers of personal data to the US in compliance with EU law. The European Parliament had already advanced those requests more than once in the past.


    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce, Penny Pritzker, promptly released a press release in response to the decision that expressed deep disappointment with the decision. The statement indicates that the decision “creates significant uncertainty for both U.S. and EU companies and consumers, and puts at risk the thriving transatlantic digital economy.” It further calls for the release of an updated Safe Harbor Framework “as soon as possible.”

    Secretary Pritzker’s statement also indicates that the U.S. is prepared to work with the European Commission to address the uncertainty that this decision causes for U.S. and EU businesses so that businesses that “have complied in good faith with the Safe Harbor and provided robust protection of EU citizens’ privacy in accordance with the Framework’s principles can continue to grow the world’s digital economy.”


    The ECJ decision will now be sent to the High Court in Dublin, in order for the national judge to use this new interpretative framework as a basis for deciding Schrems’ legal challenge for Facebook to be audited.

    While the ECJ decision is of immediate application, the practical effect in a B2C setting will actually depend on the actions of the DPAs in each European Union member state, and others.

    Meanwhile, public outrage may lead to a wave of complaints and possible requests for interim action, such as injunctions before national courts. Such initiatives may notably be undertaken by the likes of complainant and privacy activist Mr. Schrems, and others who follow his lead.

    Strictly speaking, only a decision from the European Commission has been invalidated — the Safe Harbor remains a voluntary mechanism adopted by the United States under the supervision of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) or Department of Transportation (“DoT”).

    Accordingly, companies that have certified as compliant with the Safe Harbor are still subject to FTC or DoT jurisdiction, but compliance with the Safe Harbor Framework will no longer be assumed by European authorities to offer an adequate level of protection.

    The consequence of this ECJ decision lies in the fact that each national DPA now has the power to control the conformity of a data transfer not only to the Data Directive, but also to the Safe Harbor framework.

    Therefore, the compliance of the U.S. data importer with the Safe Harbor Framework may now be scrutinized by both the FTC and DoT (as before), and each local DPA.

    From a B2B point of view, this decision will, without doubt, disrupt the ongoing negotiations with European business customers, who might threaten to interrupt the delivery of goods or services and seek redress for noncompliance until their providers establish alternative grounds to transfer data to the United States in accordance with the requirements of the Data Directive.


    While the Safe Harbor certification of each U.S. entity may now be scrutinized by each local EU DPA, from an EU law perspective, alternate modes of data transfers, such as Data Transfer Agreements based on the EU Commission Model Clauses (a fixed contractual template regulating the transfer of data from one EU data exporter (or more) to a non-EU data importer (or more) or Binding Corporate Rules (“BCR”, an ad-hoc set of rules governing the processing of personal data within the various entities of a given group of companies), may still be relied upon.

    The BCR approach involves potential risks to both U.S. companies and European corporate affiliates, including the following:

    – If the Safe Harbor certification of a U.S. company is deemed invalid by a DPA, this European DPA may initiate sanctions against any EU exporter making data available to this U.S. data importer. If this U.S. data importer has no physical or commercial presence in EU territory, no sanction may be enforced against it by an EU DPA.

    – If, for the security of their data transfers from Europe, the U.S. importers execute Data Transfer Agreements with their EU counterparts, the joint-liability regime of the European Model Clauses will make the EU data exporter bear the whole of the actual liability.

    On the one hand, Model Clauses are easily executable, but do not provide much flexibility. In addition, their adoption involves legal risk due to their pass-through liability and audit requirements, and is not always feasible due to the need to execute clauses with any sub-processors that will have access to the personal data transferred.

    On the other hand, BCR are time consuming and potentially expensive to implement, but may offer a tailor-made solution for a given group of entities.

    U.S. companies should carefully explore the risks and benefits that data transfers using the Model Clause and BCR approaches offer, and may also wish to re-examine business practices to avoid exposure to the legal risks that transfers of personal data outside of the EU involves.

    A re-examination and change in data transfer practices could help mitigate the risks that the Model Clause and BCR approaches have under EU law, as well as potential risks that agreeing to European-style data protection expectations might have if tested in litigation in U.S. courts.

    The draft Data Protection Regulation currently being discussed in the EU appears to maintain both the Model Clause and BCR mechanisms, which also offer the advantage of regulating data transfers worldwide and not solely to the United States.

    We may reasonably doubt that the ECJ’s intention was to sanction EU companies that transfer data outside of the EU under the Safe Harbor framework. Notwithstanding, this may be the final outcome of its decision.

    There is little doubt that this decision will have a political impact, should the Obama administration elect to carry this issue forward within the Trans-Atlantic talks notably surrounding the adoption of the TTIP, once the draft Data Protection Regulation is adopted in the EU before the end of 2015.


    This article was originally published on K&L Gates Hub. Co-authors: Etienne Drouard, Samuel R. Castic and Claude-Étienne Armingaud


    photo credit: Simon Ingram
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